Exploring relationships between academic hardiness, academic stressors and achievement in university undergraduates


  • Spiridon Kamtsios University of Ioannina, Greece
  • Evangelia Karagiannopoulou University of Ioannina


stressors, academic hardiness, undergraduates


The article reports results from the validation of the “Undergraduates Stressors Questionnaire†and the relationship between academic stressors and academic hardiness in university undergraduates. In study 1, 845 undergraduates completed the “Undergraduates Stressor Questionnaireâ€. Both exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis results provided support for the 7-factor solution, which explained 61.6% of the total variance. Scale scores showed adequate internal consistency. The results of study 1 recognized that undergraduates are subject to numerous academic stressors such as lack of leisure time, academic performance, fear of failure, academic overload, finance, competition between students, relationships with university faculty. In study 2, 478 undergraduates completed the “Undergraduates Stressor Questionnaire†and the revised Academic Hardiness Scale. The study indicates that students become less hardy in terms of commitment and challenge across the years of study and provides evidence for the moderating role of academic hardiness on students’ daily university stressors. The study also revealed that “low academic hardiness†students reported higher stress. The findings are discussed in the context of the recent literature.

Author Biographies

Spiridon Kamtsios, University of Ioannina, Greece

Department of Philosophy, Pedagogy and Psychology, section Psychology

Evangelia Karagiannopoulou, University of Ioannina

Department of Philosophy, Pedagogy and Psychology, section Psychology






Research Articles