Strategies and Barriers: Career Advancement for Women Administrators


  • Myrtle Campbell
  • Gloria D. Campbell-Whatley University of North Carolina at Charlotte


Only 24% of superintendents are women in K-12 districts in the United States, though women outnumber men in these settings. There are barriers that prevent career advancement and equal rewards for women. These barriers can be internal, such as low aspirations or duties in the home and/or external barriers such as systems and structures of society. The purpose of this study was to examine survey data on 88 women administrators (i.e., assistant principals, principals, central office administrators) regarding the internal and external barriers and for strategies and career advancement that would lead to a superintendency in a Midwestern state.

Author Biography

Gloria D. Campbell-Whatley, University of North Carolina at Charlotte

Associate Professor in the Department of Special Education and Child Development






Research Articles