Relationship between Education and Attitude towards Social Welfare among Underdogs and Topdogs in 40 Countries
Keywords:hierarchical linear modeling, attitude towards social welfare, education, role of education in society, societal underdogs
The relationship between education and attitudes towards social welfare is understudied and potentially complex.Â It is likely that the relationship differs depending on whether one is an â€œunderdogâ€ in society (e.g., socioeconomically or culturally disadvantaged), or not.Â Using hierarchical linear modeling on data from the International Social Survey Programme 2009, we explored whether and to what extent education makes a difference in attitudes about social welfare among underdogs and non-underdogs.Â The results suggest that after controlling for age and socioeconomic status, educational attainment among non-underdogs tends to be associatedâ€”if at allâ€”with a less favorable attitude towards social welfare.Â For underdogs, the association was less negative, or non-existent.Â Possible reasons and implications are discussed.
This Agreement (the Agreement) is made by and between __________(Author(s)) and "JAEPR" (the Journal)). Author Agreement By submitting this research article entitled "_____________" ('article') to (JAEPR) published by the J. Murrey Atkins Library at the University of North Carolina at Charlotte, the Author(s) certify that: I. Warranties: A. Author __________(name) is legally authorized and possesses full power and authority on behalf of my co-authors [list names] to enter into this Agreement. B. Author warrants, on behalf of all article authors, that:a. the article is original, has not been formally published in any other peer-reviewed journal, is not under consideration for publication by any other journal and does not infringe any existing copyright or any other third party rights;b. The named authors (above) are the sole author(s) of the article. Any co-author not signing this Agreement personally has granted full authority to [named author in I.A.] to enter into this agreement of his/her behalf and to grant the following rights to JAEPR set forth below.c. the article contains nothing that is unlawful, libellous, or which would, if published, constitute a breach of contract.II.CopyrightAuthors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms: a. Author(s) shall retain copyright to the article but grant the Journal right of first publication, and the irrevocable right to perpetually disseminate the article as part of the Journal subject to the Creative Commons Attribution License, that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.b. Beginning one year after the date of formal publication of the article, Authors may enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work and subject to the Creative Commons Attribution License (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), subject to a proper acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal: â€œThis article was originally published in the Dialog (Vol., Issue, Year). III. Indemnification. Author shall indemnify, defend, and hold harmless the Journal from any and all claims, liabilities, damages, expenses (including attorneys fees and expert costs, penalties, fees, if any arising from enforcement of this Agreement and/or related to claims of infringement of copyrights or proprietary rights allegedly contained in the Article , or resulting from a claim of defamation, obscenity, or invasion of privacy based upon or arising out of the publication of the Article or any other breach of warranty as set forth in No. 1.