Is Parental Support or Parental Involvement More Important for Adolescents?


  • Rachel Elizabeth Ruholt Eastern Kentucky University
  • Jonathan Gore Eastern Kentucky University
  • Kristina Dukes


self-efficacy, self-esteem, parental involvement, and parental support


The purpose of this study is to examine the role of parents in adolescent students’ academic well-being. We hypothesized that parental support and parental involvement would each predict unique variance in both self-esteem and academic self-efficacy. There were 250 participants (99 male, 151 female) between sixth through twelfth grade from various counties across Kentucky. Students were given a packet consisting of different surveys and questionnaires to complete relating to the study. The results of a regression analysis revealed that parental support and involvement positively predicted both academic self-efficacy and self-esteem. These results suggest that both parental support and parental involvement are equally important to a student’s academic well-being.

Author Biography

Rachel Elizabeth Ruholt, Eastern Kentucky University

Undergraduate psychology student at Eastern Kentucky University






Empirical Research